For example, I teach in a school where the communicative/task-based method is at the heart of the curriculum. So when I teach a given lesson, I take into account the three Ps: Presentation, Practice and Production. In the presentation phase, for instance, I may explain a specific grammatical point, and then in the practice phase, I ask students to do some activities such as fill up the gap or matching the right word, etc. In the production phase, students do some activities called “Your turn!” which could be simulations or role plays. The goal is to ensure that students actually learn what is taught in the classroom. This relates to Barbara Oakley’s concept of focused mode which allows students to concentrate on specific aspects of the lesson in order to assimilate and apply them. This thinking mode enables them to learn.
Yet, the diffused mode implies that students can connect what is learned to their background knowledge, and learn in a critical manner. In cultural anthropology, one talks about agency, the ability to think freely and critically in decision-making or problem solving. In short, students can learn outside the classroom and beyond what is taught based on their individual capacities and experiences.
Today, the concept of flipped classroom is becoming a new educational reality. Students learn by themselves most of the things thanks to the new information and communication technologies. They come in the classroom to clarify, improve and consolidate what they learned by themselves. The teacher becomes a guide or facilitator. The teacher is no longer the center of knowledge. He/she is the facilitator, a kind of mentor. As a result, the notion of “what is taught is what is learned” is not valid in such pedagogical situations.